The Pathophysiology of Disorders
During the last 5 weeks, you have explored various body systems: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological. These four systems work together along with other body systems to complete a myriad of functions. For this reason, when disorders occur within one body system, it can create potentially devastating effects throughout the entire body. For instance, Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system, yet its alterations actually affect multiple body systems from the cardiovascular system to the gastrointestinal system. In this Assignment, you examine alterations associated with disorders, as well as the impact of the alterations on multiple body systems.
· From the list below, select a disorder of interest to you:
o Alzheimer’s disease
o Asthma in children
o Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
o Congestive heart failure
o Hepatic disease (liver disease)
o Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
· Identify alterations associated with your selected disorder. Consider the pathophysiology of the alterations. Think about how these alterations produce pathophysiological changes in at least two body systems.
· Reflect on how patient factors such as genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
· Review the “Mind maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in the Week 2 Learning Resources. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology and clinical presentation of your selected disorder.
· Describe your selected disorder, as well as associated alterations. Explain the pathophysiology of the alterations, including changes that occur in at least two body systems.
· Explain how genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, and behavior might impact the pathophysiology of the alterations you identified, as well as diagnosis and treatment of your selected disorder.
· Construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Include the epidemiology, pathophysiology of alterations, risk factors, and clinical presentation, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.
RESOURCES: Please use at least two of the following resources on top of other resources you may use for references.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
- Chapter 35, “Structure and Function of the Digestive System”
This chapter provides information relating to the structure and function of the digestive system. It covers the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs of digestion.
- Chapter 36, “Alterations of Digestive Function”
This chapter presents information relating to disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs of digestion. It also covers the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.
- Chapter 37, “Alterations of Digestive Function in Children”
This chapter presents information relating to disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and liver that affect children. It focuses on congenital impairment, inflammatory disorders, metabolic disorders, as well as the impairment of digestion, absorption, and nutrition.
Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
- Chapter 13, “Gastrointestinal Disease”
This chapter provides a foundation for exploring gastrointestinal disorders by reviewing the structure and function of the GI tract. It also describes mechanisms of regulation of GI tract disorders such as acid-peptic disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.
- Chapter 14, “Liver Disease”
This chapter reviews the structure and function of the liver. It then explores the clinical presentation, etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, and clinical manifestations of three liver disorders: acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis.
- Chapter 15, “Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas”
This chapter begins by reviewing the anatomy, histology, and physiology of the exocrine pancreas. It then examines the clinical presentation, etiology, pathology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic insufficiency, and pancreatic cancer.
- de Bortoli, N., Martinucci, I., Bellini, M., Savarino, E., Savarino, V., Blandizzi, C., & Marchi, S. (2013). Overlap of functional heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease with irritable bowel syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19(35), 5787-5797. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i35.5787
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012c). The gastrointestinal system. Baltimore, MD: Author.
This media presentation outlines the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal system and associated alterations.
American Liver Foundation (2016). Retrieved from http://www.liverfoundation.org/
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. (2016). Retrieved from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/index.aspx
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