Comprehensive Case Study on COPD, Heart Failure, Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus

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Comprehensive Case Study on COPD, Heart Failure, Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus

M. K. is a 45-year-old female measuring 5’5″ and weighing 225 lbs. M. K. has a history of smoking about 22 years along with a poor diet. She has a history of type II diabetes mellitus along with primary hypertension. M. K. has recently been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis. Her current symptoms include chronic cough, more severe in the mornings with sputum, light-headedness, distended neck veins, excessive peripheral edema, and increased urination at night. Her current medications include Lotensin and Lasix for the hypertension along with Glucophage for the type II diabetes mellitus. The following are lab findings that are pertinent to this case:

Vitals
BP 158/98 mm Hg
CBC
Hematocrit 57%
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.3 %
Arterial Blood Gas Assessment
PaCO₂ 52 mm Hg
PaO₂ 48 mm Hg
Lipid Panel
Cholesterol 242 mg/dL
HDL 32 mg/dL
LDL 173 mg/dL
Triglycerides 184 mg/dL

Compose a 3- to 4-page case analysis, written in APA format with a title page and at least 3 references, with one non-Internet reference. Organize your analysis with headings that thoroughly answer the following prompts. Support your opinions with evidence from your readings and research.

PLEASE BE SURE TO INCLUDE EVERYTHING WRITTEN IN THE PARENTHESES FOR EACH QUESTION.

1. In your introduction, summarize the case. (Include the labs – say if the results are normal or abnormal (if its abnormal, say why its abnormal, “is it high or is it low?”))

2. What clinical findings correlate with M. K.’s chronic bronchitis? What type of treatment and recommendations would be appropriate for M. K.’s chronic bronchitis? (Include: What is c.b? who gets c.b ? what are the signs and symptoms ? what can you say about the lab that correlates with c.b?)

3. Which type of heart failure would you suspect with M. K.? Explain the pathogenesis of how this type of heart failure develops. Include an overview of the disease and its effects in the U.S. population. (Include: congestive heart failure- what type? left sided or right sided? what made you think that? what are the signs and symptoms?)

4. According to the BP. value, what stage of hypertension is M. K. experiencing? Explain the rationale for the current medications for her hypertension. (Include: What is htn, what are the categories ? rationale: what is the mechanism of the medication the patient is taking? how do they help?)

5. According to the lipid panel, what other condition is M. K. at risk for? According to this case study, what other medications should be given and why? What additional findings correlate for both hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus? (Include: Atherosclerosis – what meds would help? how do htn and dm correlate with this?)

6. Interpret the lab value for HbA1c and explain the rationale for this value in relation to normal/abnormal body function. (Include:HbA1c – how much glucose in your body in 3 months— this test is used to measure if the patients compliant with DM control (medication/diet/exercise)

7. Provide a conclusion that summarizes your findings and discusses the effects of this disease in the U.S. population. (Include: Your findings: what did you find that was not given to you before? what stage HTN? what type of heart failure? include everything that wasn’t given to you.)

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