I’m studying for my Psychology class and need an explanation. Response Guidelines Review fellow learners’ posts and respond to at least one of their posts per discussion question (100-word minimum response). 1. As a manager, it is important to immediately address this situation when made aware. Although it appears that the employee of the abortion clinic, Barb, breached confidentiality by divulging to her sister Carla, that Susan had an abortion. Therefore, precautions must be taken to handle this situation correctly because this incident is a serious legal situation and actions regarding this matter should be handled within the guidelines of the clinic. All appropriate administrative and legal parties should be notified as soon as possible. The supervisor should document the conversation with Susan to get an accurate account of her version of the incident. Susan would be made aware of her rights and she can decide the best way in which the matter can be resolved without causing additional harm to her. Then Barb would be referred to human resources to receive appropriate administrative action immediately. The National Abortion Federation mandates that “Confidentiality is of paramount concern to abortion patients. Providers must respect and protect their patient’s right to confidentiality” (National Abortion Federation, 2011) The only way that the information could be given to a third party is with the consent of the patient or, unless inappropriate, the patient!s legally appointed surrogate. Providers may also disclose confidential information as required by law or to prevent imminent, serious harm to the patient or others. (National Abortion Federation, 2011). In Iny profession, according to the American Counseling Association, B.3.c. Confidential Settings Counselors discuss confidential information only in settings in which they can reasonably ensure client privacy. (American Counseling Association, 2014) According to the state of Maryland §4–302. Confidentiality and Disclosure Generally (a) A health care provider shall: (1) Keep the medical record of a patient or recipient confidential (The State of Maryland, n.d.).There are no exceptions noted to the article of the Maryland statutes, concerning patient confidentiality that allows an employee to disclose a patient’s information to a relative. There are no federal or state laws that justify the actions of Carla to divulge the private medical information of Susan. Although there are various ways in which patient confidentiality can be breached (Rogers, 2006). The worst violation of confidentiality is that which involves an employee divulging your personal health information without consent to family and friend 2.School counselors are an effective tool within education. These professionals address academic, social/emotional, and provide other supports for students. Confidentiality within school counseling is an essential practice to maintain a positive working relationship with students and co-workers. “Generally, school counselors maintain confidentiality with their students when counseling them, unless serious and foreseeable harm exists (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2010, A.2.c)” (O’Connell, 2012). The students and parents maintain rights to privacy and confidentiality expect when authorized by student or when there is clear and present danger to the student or others (O’Connell, 2012). Overall, Confidentiality is an ethical obligation of the counselor to hold the client’s information private (Corey et al., 2011). School counselors often face different dilemmas when providing services to students. Ethical decision making can be influenced by various constructs of ethics, law, school policy, the relationship between the school counselor and school principal, and relationship between parents and the school (O’Connell, 2012). When those ethical decisions become difficult, the rationale becomes that the school counselor is an employee of the school and must comply with the principal or superintendent. Response Guidelines Respond to the post of one of your peers. Include relevant, required information; adequate explanations; and alternative viewpoints. Offer additional resources that may help expand their perspective, divergent issues for consideration, and suggestions for enhancing their discussion. Your responses to your peers should contain at least 250 words as well as two scholarly resources. Keep in mind the academic honesty policy and academic integrity policy stressing respectful discussion. 1. What theory of Markus particularly impacts the understanding of your topic of interest that you are investigating in your final paper? Before the question can be answered it must be noted that in when the article stated that the social space in which the child lives is just as important as the air in which the child breaths (Kitayama, S., & Cohen, D. (Eds.). 2007). Know this, the author was intrigued with the tool kit approach when dealing with teen pregnancy and mental health because most of these females were either African American or young Hispanic females from urban communities. When dealing with this approach, the individuals use the culture as a tool to help shape their perception on society and how they deal with situations thus, shaping the most fundamental cognitive processes (Medin, d., Ross, N., Atran, S., Burnett, R., & Blok, S. 2002). Also, the Sociocultural model will be very beneficial because the learner would be able to research the how and why of a person’s behavior. Furthermore, we must take into consideration that we have stakeholder and the tool kit approach helps with studies on prediction of change (Nisbett, R., Peng, K., Choi, & Norenzayan, A. 2001). 2.When dealing with core needs for individuals to develop in society there are five basic needs which are: belonging in which people want to belong to one another, understanding in which we have a desire for shared cultural understanding, enhancing self in which in which you want others to see you socially worthy, controlling in which you feel competitive, and trusting in which you have the ability to participate in group activities and trust individuals. Knowing these basic needs presented by Fiske, all the needs have been reported to be neglected by teens in urban communities. Furthermore, the teens that were surveyed considered themselves to be homeless because there is minimal parental involvement and interaction in their home. As stated by Levin, R., Bax, E., McKean, L. & Schoggen, L. (2006), “the rate of teen pregnancy among 13-15 teen pregnant homeless g girls are 14 times hirer among girls their own age”. In addition to teen pregnancy being developed, the teen mothers are also suffering from different mental disorders that are associated with not having basic needs met in adolescence being pregnant. Knowing the cultural background of the teen mothers a program that would be beneficial to them would be one of adult supervision for teen mothers. After the teen mothers int the community become pregnant, they are not allowed to live at their home anymore. The parents refuse to let their daughters see the boyfriend and as a result, the teen decides to move out of the house. Instead of living on the streets or not having a stable home, a state approved residence can be given or an approved guardianship arrangement. These systems must provide appropriate supervision and while balancing autonomy in the teens. Response Guidelines Respond to the initial post of one learner by citing additional resources that may help his or her work, presenting divergent issues for consideration, and providing suggestions for enhancing the post. Your response must contain at least 150 words and one scholarly resource that your peer did not incorporate in his or her initial post. 1.( Becks, 1960) notes that Cognitive behavioral Theory (CBT), views that how a person perceive a situation will most likely influence their reaction than the situation itself; and When viewed through the lens of cognitive behavior Therapy, positive behavioral modification lays emphasis on identifying and promoting positive behaviors by reinforcing them with structured intervention plan and strategy. Cognitive behavioral theory puts a lot of emphasis on positive behavioral modification technique and it zeroes in on one important aspects of helping clients change their unhelpful thinking and behavior that normally lead to lasting enhancement in their mood and functional ability. (Motti-Stefanidi, 2015) opined that Immigrant families adapt to new environment and adopt the efforts to help their children with realistic challenges, and parents that are flexible are more supportive and fare better in their new environment. Immigrant youths do better than others due to cultural influences of existing multi-cultural identity that allow them to adopt diversity. According to Motti-Stefanidi, (2015), personality and intelligence of the individual immigrant children play an important role and allow the immigrants opportunity to better adjust, learn language of the new culture. Family support system is also very essential and helping immigrant children acculturate and adapt to school and new culture where positive adaptation id promoted. The basic assumptions of the theory are that if you constructively change people’s perceptions or impulsive thoughts about a situation, and how they conceptualize it, it will in turn influence their emotional, behavioral or physical reactions to the situation. As part of cognitive behavior therapy, Positive behavioral technique typically tends to emphasize on identified positive behaviors and the assumption is that since human beings are attracted to praises and rewards, promoting their positive behaviors as opposed to maladaptive behaviors would increase adaptive ability and help people identify and modify their distorted beliefs, improve their basic understanding of themselves, their worlds, and other people” (Becks, 1960). (Lahad, 2010) examines the evolution of Cognitive behavior theory by studying the protocol for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder beyond cognitive behavior therapy. The study defined PTSD as a “psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature”. As a resilience tool, Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been used in the treatment of PTSD for many years, but the evolution in its scope and methods has continued to show steady results (Lehad, 2010). The study reviewed the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of PTSD following various types of traumatic situations. The study examined the potential of CBT to prevent PTSD by reviewing methods used in CBT, and providing reflections on the mechanisms of action of CBT in PTSD. The conclusive result showed a “robust evidence that CBT is a safe and effective intervention for both acute and chronic PTSD following a range of traumatic experiences in adults, children, and adolescents” (Lahad, 2010). CBT would help immigrant families become more cognizant of the resources and adaptive skills necessary to cope and assimilate into their new environment by building techniques for increasing adaptive behavior through reinforcement and decreasing maladaptive behavior through reinforcement of adaptive positive behaviors. Some political and cultural considerations have helped to answer the question of how world politics and cultural differences impact the practice of CBT. (Pretzer, 2013) advanced this considerations, which he related to the acceptance and mindfulness-based approach in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice and a special series on cultural competence in behavioral Therapy.” 2. The Theo Map utilized in this post is from a document obtained 3 to 4 years ago when this writer first heard of Positive Psychology and began utilizing CBT. This information was found on Pinterest and has been utilized in groups that this writer has facilitated successfully for several years. The document has been attached to this message along with the Eco-Map that was developed by a client on 2/21/2020. Yes, this writer presented a group with this activity yesterday and they enjoyed discovering the strengths they have in their lives by completing the Map. The group consisted of five people ranging in ages from mid-20s to the older adult populations. They each presented with strong relationships with immediate family and one or two friends that have been a part of their lives for many years. They each were able to list several sober friends that they have developed through inpatient treatment. They each saw this as positives in their worlds and being more successful in recovery. Several had issues concerning relationships with their family doctor, and because of the map, are rethinking whether or not to seek a new doctor. They did not believe their GP, general physician, had their best interest in mind due to a lack of communication from doctor to patient. Two had issues in relation to the AA groups they were required to attend due to the “God” dogma presented at these meetings. Discussions concerning other avenues of group support was the hot topic in this discussion and they were relieved to find there are other types of group meetings that present recovery in a group setting without requiring a relationship with God. The Eco Map utilized presents a simple key to be used to display where they believed the type of relationship written out on the form. This key has been presented at the top of the page given to the client. A strong relationship is displayed with an unbroken line, weak/vulnerable relationships with a broken line, and stressful relationships with a broken line with a forward slash in-between the breaks in the line. Arrows will be utilized facing toward those “bubbles” to display a reciprocity with that relationship (Sneddon, 2012). The client is a 60 yo female who is unmarried, and has one adult child. She works two jobs that she enjoys and believes herself to be successful both financially and emotionally. She has considered herself single since her divorce over 20 years ago and has not engaged in a relationship since this time. The client’s Eco Map presented with relationships that she deemed close and positive with her sister and two close friends. Susan saw these as positives in her life and she was encouraged to continue to engage with those she deems to be positive influences in her life. She showed a stressful relationship with her mother and weak relationships with her brothers. Susan stated this was because her mother was highly critical of her and her life, and her brothers and she have little to no contact. She also shared her doctor has not returned her calls to his office for the past three weeks. She sees this as a deficit in her life and stated she is seeking a new general practitioner to oversee her health needs. The group agreed with her discoveries about her positive aspects in that she is making positive changes to overcome what she deems adverse in her life. Sleep issues will be discussed with the facility doctor, and she will begin to strengthen relationships with her brothers.