antrho questions

Help me study for my Biology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand. 1. When attempting to understand the evolution of human behavior, some anthropologists look to foraging (gathering and hunting) societies, because archaeological evidence reveals that foraging is the subsistence strategy humans relied on for most of our existence. a. true b. false 2. Most known human foraging groups live in small band societies that are basically egalitarian, not hierarchical like chimp and bonobo groups. a. true b. false 3. Other than humans, the only known species in the primate order in which sexual behavior occurs independent of reproduction is the bonobo (Pan paniscus). a. true b. false 4. The presence of a large number of elderly individuals is characteristic of _______. a. all great apes (oragutans, gorillas, chimps, bonobos) b. all mammals c. only humans d. all primates 5. The term protoculture refers to ____________. a. innate behaviors commonly found in all mammals b. the earliest evidence of culture found in “prehistoric” human societies c. simple cultural activities (learned behavior) found in monkey and ape societies d. the cultural activities of human children 6. Examples of protoculture in apes and monkeys include _________. (mark all that apply) a. clam-shell cracking among colobus monkeys b. potato washing among macques c. ant fishing among chimps d. flamingo hunting among baboons e. pentadactylism among primates 7. A fossil is _____________. a. any remains of an organism, even contemporary b. the remains or traces of an ancient organism c. none of these d. an intact and completely preserved ancient organism only 8. The material remains of human behavior are known as _____________. a. molds b. casts c. fossils d. lithics e. artifacts 9. Sampling error in the fossil record involves the fact that ________. (mark all that apply) a. some species are fossilized more frequently than others b. some parts of the world have been more extensively excavated than others c. some fossils may not represent average individuals in an ancient population d. none of these 10. The fossil record offers a partial view of the past, which is subject to multiple interpretations. a. true b. false 11. Paleospecies are defined in terms of _______________. a. morphological variation b. punctuated equilibrium c. reproductive isolation d. sexual dimorphism e. microevolutionary changes 12. According to the principle of superposition ______________. a. older sedimentary beds lie beneath the younger beds b. the position of sedimentary beds is not related to age c. the geological processes responsible for the development of sedimentary beds in the past are different from those operating today d. older sedimentary beds lie on top of the younger beds 13. Using a relative dating technique, scientists could determine ____________. a. whether one fossil is younger or older than another fossil b. the approximate age in years of a fossil or artifact c. the exact age difference between two fossils or artifacts d. if two fossilized animals were genetically related to one another 14. Chronometric dating methods include stratigraphy and fluorine analysis. a. true b. false 15. Which of the following is a chronometric date? a. Mary is 10 years older than John. b. Sivapithecus comes before Australopithecus in the fossil record. c. Basket A is older than basket B. d. the first single-celled life forms date to about 3.8 billion years ago. 16. Pangaea refers to ____________. a. the name of the most recent glacial period b. an ancient land mass made up of all major land masses of today c. a Cretaceous dinosaur d. a partially fluid layer of the earth directly below the lithosphere 17. The adaptive advantages of erect bipedalism include: ____________ . (mark all that apply) a. efficient for covering large distances b. fallen arches and bunions c. frees the hands d. strengthens the lumbar region of the spine, leading to fewer slipped discs e. raises the eyes high off the ground 18. The fact that the brain of a human infant is less than 30 percent of its adult size is a consequence of the evolution of erect bipedalism. a. true b. false 19. Genera in the Tribe Hominini (Hominins) include ____________. (mark all that apply) a. Paranthropus b. pan c. homo d. canis e. Australopithecus 20. According to a consensus among paleoanthropologists, “Lucy” is ___________. (mark all that apply) a. the first fossil australopithecine to be discovered where the cranium and postcranial remains are known to be from the same individual b. a representative of the species Australopithecus afarensis c. the only Australopithecine yet to be found d. a female australopithecine PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS CORRECTLY!!!!!

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