Criminal Courts and Professional Ethics

1. When new laws are created or existing laws are revised, court systems must adapt to address any impacts caused by the law changes. Identify and describe a law change that would cause an impact to existing court proceedings and another that would impact existing court operations. Compare and contrast how courts must adapt for a law change that impacts court proceedings as opposed to one that impacts court operations.  2. Laws are generated from a variety of sources. Identify at least two different sources of laws and describe the legal basis for those sources of laws. Next, discuss the role of courts in handling issues that arise based upon the types of laws you have identified.   3. Citizen participation in the court process is an important component of the American judicial system. Discuss the reasons why citizen participation in the court hearing process is important, being sure to highlight points from both the defendant and juror perspective.   4. During Unit III of the course, criminal justice personnel were categorized as either full-time or part-time with respect to their role within the court process. Explain what constitutes a criminal justice professional being considered either a full-time or part-time participant in the court process. Next, identify one criminal justice professional role that would be considered full-time and another that would be part-time. Discuss what characteristics of each role cause it to fall into either the full-time or part-time category.   5. Dependent upon the laws of a state, courts may have guidelines that need to be followed when sentencing an individual convicted of a crime. Identify and describe at least three different types of sentencing structures that a court might have available when imposing punishment upon a defendant that has been found guilty or pleads guilty to a criminal offense. As part of the response, be sure to discuss any factors that might have to be considered with each sentencing structure.   6. The process flow for criminal case trials is very consistent from one case to another. Describe the process flow of a criminal case that has gone to trial instead of being settled through a plea bargain. Be sure to place the events in the exact order in which they occur, and explain any significant factors associated with why the events must occur in the order you have described.   7. Ethical behavior must exist within a criminal court system to ensure defendants receive fair trials. Discuss the importance of ethical behavior within the criminal court system. As part of your response, discuss how ethical behavior has been defined for at least two professions within the criminal court system and the potential negative outcomes that can occur when ethical violations are committed.   8. A lack of ethical behavior on the part of criminal court professionals can have negative impacts for defendants during the court hearing process. Identify and discuss at least three types of ethical violations within the criminal court system that can have a negative impact on the court hearing process for a defendant.All essay responses must be a minimum of 500 words, not counting references listed at the end or repeating of the question, and cited per APA guidelines. A minimum of two scholarly resources is required to support your response.  There must be a minimum of 3 in text citations cited properly. Course Text Book is Hemmens, C., Brody, D. C., & Spohn, C. C. (2013). Criminal courts: A contemporary perspective (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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