Question 1To be considered true research, a project must gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and concise way. uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community. gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding of some phenomenon. produce definitive conclusions regarding the subject of study. Question 2Which of the following examples illustrates research as it is described in your textbook? Sally is writing a paper about the effects of the Harry Potter books on the reading habits of fourth graders in the United States and United Kingdom. She goes to a research library to find information to include in her paper. Ian wants to know why the population of songbirds has declined in recent years in the Sutton Wilderness Area. He carefully collects soil and water samples, systematically surveys the entire area for predators, and then sits down to make sense of his findings. Leonard is starting a woodworking business and is not sure how to calculate the cost of his labor so he can be both profitable and fair to the customers. He asks several established business owners how they calculate labor changes. Bill is doing a report on the sonnets of Shakespeare. He carefully reads a number of sonnets and then carefully reads scholarly reviews of those same sonnets written by various Shakespeare scholars. He synthesizes all of this information in his report. Question 3 Research is considered cyclical because: the researcher articulates the goals of the project and then collects data to solve a particular problem. questions lead to data collection which leads to interpretations and then to new problems. it has a number of steps that should be followed in order. it is based on solving problems and subproblems in a systematic, unbiased way. Question 4 Cameron is conducting a study that addresses the differences in achievement scores between schools that use block scheduling and schools that use a traditional scheduling format. He has accessed average achievement scores for 1200 schools and now is comparing the two groups. In which research step is Cameron engaged? Recognize and identify a problem Interpret the meaning of the data Analyze the collected data Develop a specific plan to address the problem Question 5 Which of the following is most likely a statement made by a qualitative researcher? I would like to interview a few of the participants to understand their training. I would like to give participants a test to determine their skill level. I would like to use teacher ratings to see if the program worked. I would like to control which students get the training so we can compare groups of children that did and did not get training. Question 6 Which of the following is most likely a statement made by a quantitative researcher? Let’s follow the groups for the course of the project and take notes about their social interactions and dialogues. Let’s conduct some focus groups with college students about the types of cooperative learning they have encountered in their schooling. Let’s compare unit test scores of those who were placed in cooperative groups and those who were not. Let’s enroll in a course that uses cooperative groups and observe the nature of the instruction from a student perspective. Question 7 The philosophical assumption that objective scientific research can uncover true cause-and-effect relationships in the world is known as: empiricism positivism experimentation realism Question 8 Qualitative researchers most commonly (but not exclusively) align with which of the following philosophical approaches to research? positivism postpositivism constructivism empiricism Question 9 A specific mechanism or strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data is known as a: research tool. research method. statistical test. theory. Question 10 Research methodology refers to: the general approach the researcher takes to conducting a research project. a specific device the researcher uses to collect data. the specific theoretical basis of the research project. the statistical tests to be employed in a research project. Question 11 The primary purpose of inferential statistics is to: organize and summarize the data. turn qualitative data into meaningful numbers that can be interpreted. measure social and psychological phenomena in an unbiased way. help the researcher draw conclusions from the data. Question 12 Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of how the students interact with one another. On the basis of these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of: theory building. deductive reasoning. inductive reasoning. the scientific method. Question 13 Kimberly knows that teenagers often do not make good decisions in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that most teens have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore, Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions about sexual activity. This is an example of: inductive reasoning. theory building. problem solving. deductive logic. Question 14 Having completed a series of studies for her dissertation, Marianela sits down to brainstorm about possible explanations for her key findings. She can see a variety of ways in which all data work together, and she prepares to write a final chapter in which she presents those ideas. We would most likely say Marianela is engaged in the process of: science. theory building. constructivism. deductive reasoning. Question 15 The primary reason to seek research articles published in academic journals, rather than those posted by the author on the Internet, is that: they have been carefully selected after an extensive review by experts. they are more likely to follow the scientific method. they tend to focus on the most important topics in the field. they are more objective and show fewer pitfalls in human reasoning.