Introduction to Philosophy Final Exam

Introduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination1Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)1. Metaphysics is the study of right and wrong.A. TrueB. False2. Logic is the study of reason and arguments.A. TrueB. False3. Philosophy studies lifes most basic questions.A. TrueB. False4. Philosophical questions are primarily subjective in nature.A. TrueB. False5. The value of studying philosophy is that it develops your analytical abilities and your capacity for abstract thought.A. TrueB. False 6. _______________ is the study of how we live together in communities, and deals with problems of harmonizing freedom and obligation. A. Social philosophyB. Social interactionC. Political philosophyD. None of the above7. ________________is what Aristotle referred to as the first philosophy, and studies the most basic issues.A. EthicsB. LogicC. MetaphysicsD. Social philosophyIntroduction to PhilosophyFinal Examination28. The word philosophy derives from two ancient Greek words: philia, which means love, and sophia, which means wisdom.A. TrueB. False9. A(n)______ fallacy involves an arguments logical structure.A. InformalB. FormalC. PremiseD. conclusion10. A(n) ________ fallacy involves an arguments subject matter.A. InformalB. FormalC. PremiseD. conclusion11. The two parts of an argument are _____.A. Introduction and conclusionB. Premises and conclusionC. Pros and consD. Truths and conclusion12. Another word for the facts, evidence, theories, or ideas that allegedly lead to an arguments claim is premises.A. TrueB. False13. If its sunny, Jennifer goes surfing. Jennifer went surfing today. Therefore, it must have been sunny. This is an excellent illustration of affirming the consequent, a formal fallacy.A. TrueB. False14. A square has four sides is a necessary and sufficient condition for defining a square.A. TrueB. False15. The potions riddle in Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone is an excellent example of logical thinking.A. TrueB. False16. If someone is a student at Hogwarts, then he or she is studying witchcraft and wizardry. Neville Longbottom is a student at Hogwarts. Therefore, Nev- ille Longbottom is studying witchcraft and wizardry. This is an excellent ex- ample of Modus Ponens, or the Asserting Rule.A. TrueB. False 17. The _____is the main conscious element of the personality and tries to mediate between the unrestrained desires of the superego and the punishing demands of the id for moral perfection.A. EgoB. SoulC. LogicD. None of the above18. The inner feeling of freedom that we all have supports the theory of _____.A. FatalismB. DeterminismC. Free willD. None of the above19. The ancient Greek story of Oedipus, who, no matter how hard he tries, cannot avoid his tragic destiny, is an example of the theory of _____.A. FatalismB. DeterminismC. Free willD. None of the above20. The idea that there is one special person somewhere in the world that is your destiny to meet and fall in love with is an example of ______.A. FatalismB. DeterminismC. Free willD. None of the above21. A theory that claims that all human behavior is the result of scientifically identifiable natural forces is an example of _____.A. FatalismB. DeterminismC. Free willD. None of the above22. B.F. Skinner believes that human freedom is impossible.A. TrueB. False23. Freudianism claims that the human personality has neither conscious nor unconscious dimensions.A. TrueB. False24. A Freudian slip is an example of how the unconscious can determine what we say.A. TrueB. False25. Ellis believes that irrational beliefs are the greatest threat to our freedom.A. TrueB. False26. _____is the position that holds that in any circumstance, we genuinely have more than one option from which to choose.A. IndeterminismB. ExistentialismC. PragmatismD. Free will27. ______ claims that freedom is so inescapable that it is sometimes uncomfort- able, which is why Sartre wrote that we are condemned to be free.A. IndeterminismB. ExistentialismC. PragmatismD. Free will28. William James is the most important representative of _____, the school of thought that claims that what is true is what works.A. IndeterminismB. ExistentialismC. PragmatismD. Free will29. Sartre accepts the idea that existence precedes essence, that is, the theory that our choices determine our nature. A. TrueB. False30. The theory of free will implies about responsibility that because our actions result from our own choices, we are fully responsible for them.A. TrueB. False31. Aristotle would agree most strongly with which of the following statement: The more we understand people, the more we know how little responsibility they have for their actions.A. TrueB. False32. According to Ellis, irrational beliefs prove that determinism is correct.A. TrueB. False33. Which of the following comes closest to the main ideas underlying a deonto- logical approach to ethics?A. do your dutyB. survival of the fittestC. no harm, no foulD. there is virtue in suffering34. Utilitarianism _____.A. is a deontological ethical theory that uses a scientific, empirical basis for ethicsB. is a teleological ethical theory that bases ethics on private philosophical insightC. is a deontological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like the greatest good of the greatest number as standards for judging the morality of actionsD. is a teleological ethical theory that uses pleasure and notions like the great- est good of the greatest number as standards for judging the morality of actions35. The strengths of Benthams Hedonistic Calculus are it effectively measures many of the consequences of an action and it does not prejudge the question of the morality of an action.A. TrueB. False36. _____ revised Benthams ideas by arguing for the importance of differences in the type, kind, or quality of pleasures and pains that follow from actions.A. KantB. MillC. PlatoD. Scorates37. The most basic concept of Kants ethics is_____.A. TruthB. VirtueC. SpiritualityD. Duty38. Kant calls his basic moral rule the categorical truth.A. TrueB. False39. The ultimate drawback to a teleological approach to ethics is that it allows for the idea that the ends justify the means.A. TrueB. False40. In a religious approach to ethics, faith and the authority of sacred texts have the final word.A. TrueB. False41. A healthy soul is characterized generally by _____.A. the ability to distinguish right from wrong without being blinded by fear, greed, or the like; strength of will, freedom, self-controlB. divine grace and the guarantee of eternal lifeC. a belief in the importance of suffering and the sense of moral superiority that goes along with thatD. a belief in the teachings of Gyges and the ethical insights that flow from that42. Socrates was unusual as a philosopher because _____.A. he spent his life getting richB. no other philosopher has ever challenged his ideasC. he dictated all of his ideas to another philosopher, PlatoD. he never wrote anything about his teachings43. In the story of Gyges ring, a shepherd finds a ring that can make him invisible.A. TrueB. False44. Plato thinks that we are made up of three parts, physical, emotional, and intellectual.A. TrueB. False45. Consider the case of a woman who is robbed and beaten. The robber escapes punishment. Socrates would say the robber has been most hurt by this crime. A. TrueB. False46. Socrates illustrates his ideas about the ethical life and the unethical life with the image of two wine jars.A. TrueB. False47. In the Platonic dialogue entitled the Gorgiras, the character Callicles argues that best life is one of the uncontrolled and totally self-interested pursuit of pleasure.A. TrueB. False48. Plato believes that in the unhealthy soul there is an inappropriate balance among the three parts.A. True B. False 49. Thales believes that the basic nature of all things, the first principle of reality, is ________.A. TimeB. Our sense of selfC. Our bodiesD. Water50. Anaximanders first principle of reality is the Unlimited.A. TrueB. False51. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes and other thinkers such as Heraclitus and Parmenides are known as Post-SocraticsA. TrueB. False52. Plato explains the divided line theory with the allegory of a caveA. TrueB. False53. Berkeley maintains that object no not exist apart from being perceived. A. TrueB. False54. Berkeley claims that God constantly perceives reality, and thus gives it ulti- mate existence.A. TrueB. False55. An Anthropomorphic account of reality explains things by appealing to cul- tural terms.A. TrueB. False56. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as empiricism claims that knowledge comes from, or arises in, our minds.A. TrueB. False57. The philosophical approach to knowledge known as rationalism claims that knowledge comes from sensory experiences.A. TrueB. False58. Hume thinks that to the extent that knowledge is possible, it ultimately depends on___________.A. The sensesB. The mindC. The soulD. Our logic59. Hume uses the example of a billiard ball hitting another to question the concept of causality.A. TrueB. False60. Gilbert Ryle uses the term ___________ to describe an error in logical catego- ries, otherwise known as comparing apples to oranges.A. InformalB. Incorrect analogyC. Category falseD. Category mistake61. A triangle has three sides is an example of an analytic statement.A. TrueB. False62. Descartes uses the example of a piece of melting wax to claim that the senses are the only dependable source of knowledge.A. TrueB. False 63. Kant tried to synthesize the epistemological views of the rationalists and empiricists. A. TrueB. False64. An argument from design, claims that the universe is so intelligently crafted that it must have a creator.A. TrueB. False65. The problem of evil is taken up in the Bible in the book of job.A. TrueB. False66. Aquinas defines _________ as potentialities becoming actualized.A. Our moralsB. Our actionsC. MotionD. Our sense of self67. An onotological argument concerning Gods existence claims that by merely contemplating the notion of God as that-than-which-nothing-greater-can- be-thought, we become aware that God must exist.A. TrueB. False68. David Hume claims the fear is the basis of religion, that people accept reli- gion on emotional grounds.A. TrueB. False69. David Hume dismisses such arguments about Gods existence from causality with the claim that the material universe itself might be a necessarily existent being, which means there is no need for a first cause.A. TrueB. False70. Anselms discussion of the possibility of Gods existence relies on empirical evidence alone.A. TrueB. False71. Anselms argument is essentially Aristotelian because it believes that the question of Gods existence can be settled by studying the workings of nature.A. TrueB. False72. Hegels label for the dynamic and conflict-filled process that dominates real- ity is dialectic, the three elements of which are thesis, antithesis, synthesis. A. TrueB. False73. Marx calls the type of work that characterizes capitalism_____________.A. PunishmentB. Forced laborC. UnethicalD. Alienated labor74. Karma is an essentially deterministic principle which is, paradoxically, based on the idea of individual free choice.A. TrueB. False75. The Supreme Buddha was a prince from fifth century B.C. Nepal who became a great spiritual leader.A. TrueB. False76. _______________ is the Buddhist idea that because the task of spiritual de- velopment is too complex to accomplish in one lifetime, we live many lives.A. KarmaB. Our destinyC. RebirthD. Free will77. In Western culture, religion and philosophy thoroughly intermix, and in the East, they do just the same.A. TrueB. False78. The Buddhist conception of the self is the source of the way the self is under- stood in Western philosophy.A. TrueB. False79. Modern natural science has a close relationship to the school of philosophy called Empiricism. A. TrueB. False80. According to Einstein, _________ will be perceived the same whether the observer is moving or not.A. Space-time continuumB. String theoryC. The speed of lightD. Theory of Relativity81. Einsteins theory about the ______implies that reality has four dimensions, not three.A. Space-time continuumB. String theoryC. The speed of lightD. Theory of Relativity82. _______________is based on the claim that the ultimate building blocks of reality arent subatomic particles, but even smaller vibrating one-dimensional strings of energy.A. Space-time continuumB. String theoryC. The speed of lightD. Theory of Relativity83. The world of subatomic particles spawned a separate branch of physics called quantum mechanics. A. TrueB. False84. Imagine two twins. One gets onto a space ship and travels close to the speed of light for what the ships clocks record as a few months. The other twin re- mains on earth. When the space ship returns, there will be no difference in their ages.A. TrueB. False85. Imagine that you are standing still, while a friend of yours is on a train head- ing north. You see two lightning bolts strike the ground at the same instant   one to the north and the other to the south. Einstein would say that your friend on the train experiences things differently, seeing the northern bolt strike before the southern bolt.A. TrueB. False86. Unlike Newton, Einstein believes that space is constant and absolute and cannot bend.A. TrueB. False87. The main psychological research on epistemological differences between men and women focuses on different developmental stages that we go through in progressing from a simple to a mature understanding of the con- cept of _____________.A. TruthB. Self-actualizationC. UnderstandingD. Knowledge88. In ______________ conventional morality, including stages three and four, we understand right and wrong in terms of laws and the expectations of others.A. KohlbergsB. Perrys C. BelenkysD. Gilligans89. If we are at Perrys second stage, unacceptable multiplicity, and we hear two opposite accounts of the causes of the Reformation, we would probably think that one, but only one, of the two accounts is true.A. TrueB. False90. In Belenkys first stage, ____________, knowledge is what some external authority says it is.A. Constructed knowledgeB. Received knowledgeC. Subjective knowledgeD. Procedural knowledge91. In Belenkys final stage, _______________, believing is more important than doubting.A. Constructed knowledgeB. Received knowledgeC. Subjective knowledgeD. Procedural knowledge92. If we combine the two perspectives represented by Kohlberg and Gilligan, the problem of the moral justification of an action becomes more difficult and involved.A. TrueB. False93. Sex refers to societal roles, whereas gender refers to biology.A. True B. False94. Human and person are different, but related, ideas. Human is a bio- logical concept, while person is a _____________ concept.A. TheologicalB. PhilosophicalC. ScientificD. Emotional95. Dolphins curiosity about humans can be traced back at least to ancient __________.A. RomeB. ChinaC. GreeceD. None of the above96. The one dolphin sense that acts as both their eyes and ears in the water is like the modern human sonar system onboard submarines.A. TrueB. False97. Dolphins have a body temperature of _________ degrees.A. 98.6B. 96.8C. 90.2D. 92.298. As far as the criteria for personhood are concerned, dolphins probably do possess awareness because the fact that they can be so easily trained shows that they are aware of the external world and able to interact with it.A. TrueB. False99. The fact that dolphins can perform leaps, dives and flips on cue from train- ers: prove that dolphins are not intelligent enough to be persons, because persons would not perform such menial behaviors.A. TrueB. False100. In terms of the criteria for personhood developed in this chapter, dolphins, on balance, did pretty well.A. TrueB. False

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