Earth Science Questions

Hi there,I am needing help with my final exam that is due tomorrow. It’s due tomorrow by midnight. I’ve seen another version of the final, but it’s not the version that I need. I need the following:Final Exam SCI256   Name: __________________________  Date: _____________ Instructions: Answer the following questions by correctly answering each question. Use complete sentences on non-multiple choice questions. 1.  Urban centers alter their own climate in all of the following ways except: A)  by altering wind patterns due to surface roughness B)  by reflecting more sunlight than an undisturbed land surface C)  by increasing the retention of heat D)  by altering the natural vegetation 2.  The amount of phosphorus and nitrogen in groundwater probably would be greatest: A)  in undisturbed forest land B)  in agricultural land in the developed world C)  in agricultural land in the developing world D)  downhill from a petroleum refinery E)  downhill from an urban population center 3  The vadose zone refers to: A)  the unsaturated zone above the water table B)  the saturated zone below the water table C)  the discharge zone of a basin D)  the recharge zone of a basin E)  the water table 4.  Monoculture production of crops is more vulnerable to outbreaks of disease because this type of farming: A)  requires increased irrigation B)  simplifies the ecosystem C)  increases the diversity of pests D)  causes soil erosion E)  enriches the local floras by introducing fertilizers 5  What is the main common feature of a wetland: A)  it is wet all year round B)  it has little variation in water temperature over the course of the year C)  it is wet part or all of the year D)  the duration of inundation depends on the precipitation E)  the wetland soil is characterized by sufficient oxygen 6.  Sulfur dioxide is: A)  a yellow-brown gas that contributes to photochemical smog B)  a colorless and odorless gas that binds to hemoglobin in blood C)  a colorless and odorless gas that damages the lungs D)  a reactive gas produced, in part, by photochemical reaction of sunlight with various air pollutants 7.  Which of the following is not one of the five classes of hazardous waste described in your text? A)  acids B)  explosives C)  combustible solvents D)  toxic chemicals E)  human waste 8. The reservoirs and pathways that any chemical element follows through the Earth’s system is called the: A)  carbon cycle B)  nitrogen cycle C)  hydrologic cycle D)  geological cycle E)  biochemical cycle 9.  In some ways, natural gas is considered a better fossil fuel than oil.  This is primarily because: A)  gas is found at shallower depths than oil B)  gas is easier to transport over long distances than oil C)  gas is a renewable resource D)  once a reservoir is located, gas commands a higher price than oil E)  burning natural gas is cleaner than burning oil 10.  The ratio of the actual amount of energy delivered where it is needed to the amount of energy supplied in order to meet that need: A)  potential energy B)  kinetic energy C)  cogeneration D)  soft path energy E)  first-law efficiency 11.  The total effect of humans upon the environment is: A)  the product of the average impact per individual times the total number of  individuals B)  the product of the population and the total number of births C)  the total number of births per individual D)  the total number of individuals E)  not predictable 12. Characteristics of species likely to become endangered and extinct as a result of human activities include: A)  long-lived individuals B)  small body size C)  rapid rates of reproduction D)  rapid rates of population growth E)  invertebrates 13.  “Soft path” energy strategies feature all of the following characteristics except: A)  sustainable energy sources B)  integrating high-tech solutions to improve sustainability and efficiency C)  addition of large-scale nuclear fusion to our energy mix D)  diverse energy sources appropriate to end-use needs E)  energy supply appropriate to local sources and people 14.  Which of the following is not an adverse effect of global climate change? A) rise in sea level B) spread of infectious diseases C) retreat of glaciers D) more extreme weather E) increase of global temperatures 15.  The cap rock which helps to form a trap for natural gas and oil is usually: A)  coarse-grained sandstone B)  fine silt or clay C)  limestone D)  basalt E)  organic-rich 16.  The principle advantage of using wetlands for wastewater treatment is: A)  the resulting water exceeds all drinking water standards B)  a natural ecosystem replaces industrial methods for secondary and advanced treatment C)  it removes dioxin and other pollutants in the sediment of the wetland D)  the method eliminates the production of methane, which contributes to global warming E)  it replaces all need for a centralized wastewater treatment facility 17.  The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical cycles.  However, molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is not a significant element for life because: A)  almost all nitrogen is in the atmosphere and therefore unavailable to life B)  organisms use either CO2 or O2 but not nitrogen C)  N2 is relatively inert and must be transformed in order to be useful D)  where nitrogen is insufficient, organisms can use other, more plentiful nutrients E)  nitrogen is an important nutrient, necessary for life 18.  The hydrologic cycle refers to the recycling of: A)  surface B)  groundwater C)  rain water D)  ocean water E)  all water 19.  Which feedback mechanism in the Earth-atmosphere system is incorrect? A)  increased atmospheric CO2 leads to an increased greenhouse effect B)  increased glacial melting leads to decreased albedo C)  decrease in cloud albedo leads to increased atmospheric temperature D)  decreased atmospheric H2O leads to an increased greenhouse effect E)  increased surface temperature leads to increased evaporation 20.  The question “Which is more important, the survival of people alive today or conservation of the environment?” is difficult to answer. Answering this question demands: A)  value judgments B)  sustainability C)  science and technology D)  a global perspective E)  a legal basis 21.  Overgrazing impacts the land in which of the following ways: I.  It increases the diversity of plant species. II.  Animals trample and compact the soil. III.  It leads to increased soil erosion. A)  I only B)  II only C)  III only D)  I and III E)  II and III 22.  Why does the availability of chemical elements increase immediately after a fire? A)  many elements are blown onto the atmosphere B)  fire restores the natural habitat C)  many compounds in the ash are highly soluble in water D)  toxins are removed by smoke E)  natural predators are eliminated by the fire 23.  As a forest management practice, clear cutting: A)  typically leads to increased soil erosion B)  may be important in inducing regeneration of desirable species C)  is no longer frequently used D)  is usually best used on steep hill slopes E)  speeds the re-growth of the next generation of trees 24.  97 % of all water on Earth is in the oceans. Which of the following is the correct order of the Earth’s water storage compartments from largest to smallest: A)  ocean, atmosphere, lakes, groundwater, rivers, ice caps B)  ocean, groundwater, rivers, ice caps, atmosphere, lakes C)  ocean, ice caps, groundwater, lakes, atmosphere, rivers D)  ocean, lakes, ice caps, groundwater, atmosphere, rivers E)  ocean, atmosphere, ice caps, groundwater, rivers, lakes 25.  Human demography suggests that an improving economy in a country correlates with: A)  decreased birth rate, increased population growth rate B)  decreased death rate, increased population growth rate C)  decreased birth rate, decreased population growth rate D)  increased birth rate, decreased population growth rate E)  increased birth rate, increased population growth rate 26.  In which of the following examples will primary succession occur? A)  in the rain shadow of mountains B)  at the edges of retreating glaciers C)  in a forest after a fire D)  on abandoned pastures E)  in dune areas after a hurricane 27.  Using the Scientific Method in conducting an experiment is useful because: A)  following a standardized procedure allows a scientist to compare his/her data with the results of other scientists B)  observations should only be done in a laboratory C)  when using the Scientific Method, it is not necessary to conduct controlled experiments D)  the results will always be useful quantitative data E)  the Scientific Method allows scientists to determine what their results will be before actually doing any experiments 28.  Which of the following is not considered a renewable energy resource? A) water (hydropower) B) wood C) hydrothermal energy D) solar energy E ) nuclear 29. A species upon which the entire ecosystem depends on is called a(n): A) ecological community B) community level effect C) keystone species D) ecosystem E) individual species 30.  What is the major product of photosynthesis? A)  water B)  sugar C)  nitrogen D)  proteins 31.  If a population grows beyond its carrying capacity, deaths _________ births, and the population ________ back to the carrying capacity.  If a population falls below its carrying capacity, births _________ deaths, and the population ________. A)  are exceeded by; increases; exceed; decline B)  exceed; increases; are exceeded by; decreases C)  exceed; decline; are exceeded by; increases D)  are exceeded by; decline; exceed; increases E)  none of these is the correct option 32.  What practice has greatly increased the farm yield per unit area A)  irrigation B)  contour plowing C)  modern fertilizers D)  pest control E)  weed control 33.  Of the following disposal options, which one would be most appropriate (or least objectionable) for hazardous liquid chemicals? A)  sanitary landfill B)  deep well disposal C)  open dump D)  composting E)  ocean dumping 34.  A ____________ type of feedback mechanism functions as a _______________ process for the system as a whole. A)  negative; destabilizing B)  negative; stabilizing or self-regulating C)  equilibrium; stabilizing D)  positive;  stabilizing or self-regulating E)  positive; cleansing 35.  In a large office building, a number of employees begin complaining of headaches, dizziness, and nausea at about the same time.  This is an example of: A)  Legionnaires’ disease B)  high concentrations of radon gas C)  chimney effect D)  mass psychosis E)  sick building syndrome 36.  What is the carrying capacity of the Earth for humans? A)  zero B)  under 1 billion C)  just over 5 billion D)  between 10 and 20 billion E)  any estimate depends on who you ask and what assumptions they make 37.  Farmers change the crops they cultivate in a field from year to year to prevent the depletion of what mineral or nutrient? A) Carbon B) Nitrogen C) Phosphorus D) Water E) Radon 38.  Disposing of biodegradable toxic waste by land application is a cheap and efficient method because: A)  the concept of dilute and disperse is adequate for toxic waste B)  these materials are degraded by the microorganisms in the soil C)  there is no limit to the amount of waste that can be applied to the soil D)  the waste is a good fertilizer E)  the practice is difficult to regulate and laws against it are difficult to enforce 39.  Which of the following parameters is/are necessary to describe exponential population growth? A)  pathway B)  population size C)  juvenile death rate D)  time lag E)  all of these 40.  The primary sources of biofuel in India, an example of a developing country, are: A)  oil and coal B)  methanol and cattle dung C)  nuclear and wood D)  wood and cattle dung 41.  According to class discussion and the USDA National Invasive Species Information Center, which is not a potential direct impact of invasive species: A)  Competition with native species B)  Destruction of habitat C)  Increased economic costs D)  Potential to harm human health E)  Loss of biodiversity 42.  Fishery management has used the optimum sustainable population in order to avoid over-fishing. What exactly is the optimum sustainable population? A)  it is the largest number of fish that can be harvested B)  it is the fish harvest that generates the highest possible market price for the fish C)  it is the fish harvest that can be sustained through the lifetime of one fisherman D)  it is the population that equals the maximum sustainable yield E)  it is the largest fish harvest that can be sustained indefinitely 43.  The “dead zone” in the northern Gulf of Mexico consists of a large ocean area depleted in __________.  This problem appears to be caused by __________. A)  oxygen;  nitrogen from agricultural runoff B)  carbon;  industrial pollutants C)  marine microorganisms;  ozone depletion D)  oxygen;  global warming E)  chlorophyll;  deforestation 44.  At the present time, the method for handling high-level nuclear waste in the U.S. is: A)  dilute and disperse B)  temporary storage, pending completion of a permanent disposal site C)  long-term disposal in salt mines D)  export to France or Britain E)  ocean-bottom disposal 45.  Modern industrialized agriculture involves all of the following characteristics except: A)  major use of fossil fuels B)  increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere C)  increased decomposition of soil organic matter D)  artificial use of fertilizer E)  cultivation of subsistence crops 46.  According to the textbook, the nation with the largest forested land surface is: A)  Brazil B)  Russia C)  Canada D)  USA E)  Argentina 47.  About one-third (~33%) of the Earth’s land has climates that should produce deserts, but about 43% actually is desert.  What one dominant force is believed to be the cause of this excess desert land? A)  irrigation B)  global warming C)  changing climates since the last Ice Age D)  human activities E)  agriculture 48.  Global warming may have profound consequences on the Earth’s ability to produce food.  Which of the following is considered the most likely impact of global warming: A)  it will increase average food production worldwide B)  it will decrease average food production worldwide C)  it will shift zones of food production and cause local disruption D)  it will reduce human reliance on irrigation E)  it will increase soil erosion worldwide 49.  Which of the following is not a major greenhouse gas? A)  carbon-dioxide B)  methane C)  CFCs D)  water vapor E)  ozone 50.  A specific location where pollution is introduced into surface water or groundwater: A)  acid mine drainage B)  point source C)  secondary treatment D)  cryptosporidium E)  fecal coliform bacteriasci/256 final exam SCI256_Final_Exam.doc

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